Gryphon International - Home Page

TECHNICAL PAPERS PREPARED BY GRYPHON

Thank you for your interest in technical papers prepared by Gryphon. For an abstract of a paper, please click on its title. If you would like to obtain a copy of a technical paper, please click on the 'request' link in the paper's abstract. We would be happy to send you a copy. If desired, Gryphon could potentially make arrangements to present these papers or workshop at your location.
 
 

 

Cogeneration Principles © by Henk van Ballegooyen

Gas Turbine Applications© by Jim Noordermeer

 

Steam Turbine Applications© by Jim Noordermeer

 

Steam Turbine Bypass Systems by Robert W. Anderson (Progress Energy Inc), and Henk van Ballegooyen

 

Condenser Applications © by Henk van Ballegooyen and Paul Durkin

 

Analytical Method for Evaluation of Total System Options © by Paul Durkin

 

 

Preserving Boiler Plant Efficiency by Better Maintenance © by Paul Durkin

 

Boiler Plant Replacement and Retrofit - Case Studies © by Paul Durkin

 

Boiler Environmental Issues - Air Emissions © by Paul Durkin and James McLeish

 

Understanding Gas Turbine Performance© by Jim Noordermeer

 

Cogeneration and Combined-Cycle Principles Workshop© by Jim Noordermeer

 

 
Cogeneration Principles by Henk van Ballegooyen Download this Technical Paper

Cogeneration is the simultaneous production of two or more forms of useful energy, usually electricity and heat, from a single fuel source. In the early 1900's, many industries employed cogeneration in the absence of economically viable alternatives for the production of process heat and electricity. With the development of large central generating stations and reliable electrical distribution systems, interested in cogeneration waned. Industries found it more economical to produce their own process heat and to purchase their electricity, rather than use self-generation.

Today in a world of global competition, high costs of purchased power and concern for the environment, many industries are once again turning to cogeneration. The waste heat associated with many processes is being harnessed and used to generate electricity either for sale to a utility or for self-generation. Conversely, many industries are using a waste product as a fuel or are increasing their current fuel usage for the purpose of generating electricity. The waste heat associated with this operation is then harnessed to provide process heat. The net effect of either approach has been a new source of revenue (the sale of electricity) or the lowering of operating costs (the displacement of process heat or the reduction of electricity purchases). The economic incentive in some instances is so great as to promote large electrical generating installations even in excess of the industrial user's own requirements.

This paper outlines the fundamental principles of Cogeneration, with illustrations of Topping and Bottoming cycles, a number of common cogeneration cycles that can be employed in industrial applications and for developer applications, demonstrations of the application of Heat-to-Power Ratios, and tabulations of the performance of typical prime movers in a number of cycles.

This information taken together will permit the reader to evaluate which cogeneration system may best serve a given application.

Copyright 1991  

Gas Turbine Applications Download this Technical Paper

This paper describes how gas turbines can be applied into service for either:

a) electrical power generation, or       b) mechanical drive application,

considering both technical and simplified economic considerations.

For a starting point, in the Electrical Power Generation section, a BASE CASE for a typical industrial facility is described, illustrating the plant's existing electrical power usage, steam production and fuel usage profiles, without cogeneration.

Sequential examples, with illustrations and simplified calculations are then given, showing how a gas turbine generator (GTG) could be integrated into the Base Case* facility, to ultimately save money. The examples progressively increase in complexity, flexibility, cost and efficiency, and include:

  1. GTG in Open Cycle Configuration
  2. GTG with Unfired HRSG
  3. GTG with Fired HRSG
  4. Small Combined-Cycle Cogeneration Plant
  5. Large Combined-Cycle Cogeneration Plant

In the Mechanical Power Applications section, the BASE CASE scenario is a typical Utility Pipeline Gas Compressor application using a mechanical drive gas turbine. Sequential examples are then given showing how combined-cycle using steam turbine generators could be applied to the typical plant.

The paper finishes with general discussions on Turbine Selection Criteria, including turbine sizing considerations and aero-derivative vs. heavy-duty industrial comparisons.

* For an illustration of how a steam turbine generator could be integrated into the same Base Case facility, please refer to the Steam Turbine Applications © paper.

Steam Turbine Applications Download this Technical Paper

This paper describes how steam turbines can be applied into service for either:

a) electrical power generation, or       b) mechanical drive application,

considering both technical and simplified economic considerations.

For a starting point in the Electrical Power Generation section, a BASE CASE for a typical industrial facility is described, illustrating the plant's existing electrical power usage, steam production and fuel usage profiles, without cogeneration.

Sequential examples, with illustrations, extraction maps and simplified calculations are the given, showing how a steam turbine generator (STG) could be integrated into the Base Case* facility, to ultimately save money. The examples progressively increase in complexity, flexibility and cost, and decrease in overall efficiency, and include:

  1. Backpressure STG
  2. Condensing STG
  3. Combined Cycle Cogeneration Plant - including a gas turbine generator and heat recovery steam generator.

In the Mechanical Power Applications section, a simple cost-and-performance illustration of the replacement of electric motor driven boiler feedwater pumps and boiler FD fans, with mechanical-drive steam turbines is provided.

The paper finishes with a general discussion on steam piping, turbine auxiliaries and exhaust/condenser configurations.

* For an illustration of how a gas turbine generator could be integrated into the same Base Case facility, please refer to the Gas Turbine Applications © paper.  

Steam Turbine Bypass Systems by Robert W. Anderson (Progress Energy Inc), and Henk van Ballegooyen

The often excellent operation of large gas turbine generators, multi-pressure reheat heat recovery steam generators and steam turbine generators in large combined-cycle power plants operated at 100% load, can sometimes become awkward and troublesome during transient conditions of startup, low-load, steam turbine trip and shutdown conditions.

This article discusses steam turbine bypass systems, sparger tubes, steam attemperation control, condenser dump-bypass system design, and noise problems in regard to current HEI, EPRI and overseas design practices and provides recommendations for future plant designs.

Open the Steam Turbine Bypass Systems Article  (hosted at http://www.psimedia.info)   

Condenser Applications by Henk van Ballegooyen and Paul Durkin Download this Technical Paper

This paper describes the many types of condensing systems which can be installed on the exhaust of condensing-type steam turbines, depending upon the type of condensing application and/or location of the facility.

Although condensing systems may have some technical variances, they all strive for the same basic result - lowering turbine exhaust pressure in order to reduce the exhaust steam enthalpy, thus increasing system power output, and increasing cycle efficiency.

This paper presents and illustrates brief descriptions of several types of condensers and some of their applications.

Maintenance issues and materials of construction are also briefly outlined.

Analytical Method For Evaluation of Total System Options by Paul Durkin Download this Technical Paper

Gryphon has encountered, with many of its clients, a general lack of consensus on a future strategy for their Heating and/or Chilled Water Systems. As an engineering company which specializes in power plants, cogeneration and chiller systems, we are often requested to carry out studies to determine if cogeneration is viable or if a piping distribution system should be upgraded. Only in a few instances, however, have we been requested to analyze and model the entire heating or cooling system to provide a baseline performance and economic model of the system which can be used as a basis for decisions. Without a total system approach, options tend to be evaluated individually. A total energy/total plant perspective provides a method to determine what effects changes in operation will have on present performance and economics and to allow multiple options to be investigated to provide the client with a true picture of the process for future operations.

This paper presents an example of a total system model which allows various scenarios to be investigated. It provides a client with concrete information on the effects of centralized or decentralized expansion, sizing of future units based on load growth forecasts, unit retirement schedules, possible fuel types, possible prime mover types, efficiency vs. capital cost comparisons, as well as other options. The total system modeling method provides the client with an analysis, in a graphical and tabular format, of the options that should be considered and the type of future expansion that provides the best opportunities and least risks.

Copyright 1996  

Preserving Boiler Plant Efficiency by Better Maintenance by Paul Durkin Download this Technical Paper

This Preserving Boiler Plant Efficiency by Better Maintenance paper was originally prepared for the EPIC Educational Programs Innovations Center Boiler Plant Efficiency Seminar in Toronto, in November 1997.

The first section of this paper reviews the establishment of a computerized maintenance / materials management system (MMS) for a boiler plant. The MMS discussed is based on the system that is being implemented at the Northland Power Iroquois Falls Cogeneration Plant, for which Gryphon acted as the Independent Engineer. Topics covered include:

a) Plan Objectives,
b) Plan Structure,
c) Organization,
d) Work Order System,
e) Materials Management,
f) Administrative Features.

The second section of this paper examines maintenance items that should be included in a maintenance program aimed at preserving boiler efficiency. Emphasis is placed on maintenance of the combustion process, particularly excess air levels. In this regard, maintenance of firing equipment and combustion controls is first examined. Other items such as fireside cleanliness air and gas leaks and blowdown are also discussed.

Boiler Plant Replacement and Retrofit - Case Studies by Paul Durkin Download this Technical Paper

This Boiler Plant Replacement and Retrofit - Case Studies paper was originally prepared for the EPIC Educational Programs Innovations Center Boiler Plant Efficiency Seminar in Toronto, in November 1997.

This paper reviews two (2) recent boiler replacement and retrofit projects that Gryphon International Engineering Services Inc. engineered.

In the first project reviewed, a completely new replacement boiler plant was installed at the Henderson General Division of the Hamilton Civic Hospitals, Hamilton, Ontario. The new boiler plant contained three new "D" type package boilers rated at 15,000, 25,000, and 30,000 lb/hr of 125 psig saturated steam. The boilers were equipped with low-NOx, parallel flow burners that were designed to utilize Induced Flue Gas Recirculation (IFGR). Also included in the plant were new makeup, feedwater, and condensate systems, as well as a Bailey Infi 90 Distributed Control System (DCS).

In the second project reviewed, two (2) new 110,000 lb/hr, 400 psig, 600 deg F package boilers were installed to replace existing boilers at Cornell University's Central Heating Plant in Ithaca, New York. Engineering was also provided for the removal of two existing boiler feedwater pumps and subsequent installation of a new steam turbine-driven feedwater pump, the installation of a new pressure reducing-desuperheating station, plus the expansion and upgrading of the DCS, and extensive building modifications.

The paper finishes with reasons for retrofits, and examples of potential types of boiler retrofits are also discussed.

Boiler Environmental Issues - Air Emissions by Paul Durkin and James McLeish Download this Technical Paper

ABSTRACT

Today's social and economic pressures drive boiler owners and operators to achieve better energy efficiency while maintaining or improving emissions. Rapidly evolving environmental regulations in Ontario complicate the task of assessing and implementing appropriate emissions control technologies.

This paper presents a summary of environmental guidelines, rules, and regulations presently in Ontario for boilers. Proposed new rules and regulations and those being implemented are also presented. The review focuses on recent and proposed changes which impact boiler owners and operators.

The paper also discusses the various boiler air pollutants and methods to control and minimize those pollutants.

Understanding Gas Turbine Performance Download this Technical Paper

ABSTRACT

The performance characteristics of a gas turbine engine or Gas Turbine Generator package (GTG) depends upon the type and model of engine being examined, the location at which it will be installed, the ambient conditions under which it will operate, and the fuel(s) and NOx suppression methods which will be utilized.

This paper is a primer presenting an explanation of typical gas turbine and GTG package rating methods and why and how they are corrected, so that an accurate real-life picture of the performance envelope of a unit can be determined for the examiner's evaluation.  

Cogeneration and Combined-Cycle Principles Workshop by Download this Technical Paper

ABSTRACT

This Cogeneration and Combined-Cycle Principles Workshop provides an overview introduction to cogeneration and combined-cycle powerplants, including primers on gas turbines; heat recovery steam generators; steam turbines & condensers; methodologies for executing a plant from conception through to synchronization and operation; and operations and maintenance concepts. Typical examples of simple-cycle, cogeneration, combined-cycle and combined-cycle cogeneration plants are provided.
 
Chapter 1 – Principles of Cogeneration
  1. The Case for Cogeneration
  2. Basic Cogeneration Cycles
  3. Process Heat-to-Power Ratio
  4. Cogeneration Cycle Efficiency
  5. Typical Cogeneration Applications
  6. Summary

Chapter 2 – Introduction to Gas Turbines

  1. Gas Turbine Concepts
  2. The Gas Turbine Assembly
  3. The Gas Turbine Package
  4. Newest Gas Turbine Technologies

Chapter 3 – Introduction to HRSGs

  1. Introduction
  2. Fundamental Parts of the HRSG
  3. Types of HRSGs
  4. Single vs. Multi-Pressure HRSGs
  5. Unfired vs. Fired HRSGs
  6. Post-Combustion Emissions Controls
Chapter 4 – Introduction to Steam Turbines and Condensers
  1. Steam Turbine Concepts
  2. Steam Turbine Exhaust Configurations
  3. Extraction, Admission and Reheat Considerations
  4. Steam Turbine Cylinder Configurations
  5. Types of Condensing Systems

Chapter 5 – Execution and Applications

  1. Project Execution Process
  2. Identifying the Opportunity
  3. Developing the Project
  4. Planning and Financing
  5. Design and Construction
  6. Commissioning and Startup              Application Examples

Chapter 6 – Operations and Maintenance

  1. O&M Concepts
  2. O&M Options
  3. O&M Considerations
  4. Staffing
Mechanical Services     Civil Services     Electrical Services     Instrumentation & Control Services
    Contact Us   Site Map Gryphon Linked In Page